The present smoking rate of adult males continues to decline in all ages, especially among the upper income brackets.

The current smoking rate of adult women remains at a low level, but the smoking rate of women in their 20s and 30s is gradually increasing.

Men's smoking rate is the highest among OECD countries, while women's smoking rate is the lowest.

Men's drinking rates remain high in both monthly and high-risk drinking rates, while female drinking rates continue to rise.

In the case of high-risk drinking rates, men have little difference among income brackets, while women have the highest rate in the lower bracket.

Drinking has a significant negative impact on health and harmful effects on others.